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Internet of Things Sensors & Mapping
Wireless Personal-Area Networks
Bluetooth and ZigBee have much in common. Both are types of IEEE 802.15 “wireless personal-area networks,” or WPANs. Both run in the 2.4-GHz unlicensed frequency band, and both use small form factors and low power.
- Modulation technique
- Bluetooth: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
- ZigBee: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
- Protocol stack size
- Bluetooth: 250K bytes
- ZigBee: 28K bytes
- Bluetooth: Intended for frequent recharging
- ZigBee: Not rechargeable (one reason batteries will last for up to 10 years)
- Maximum network speed:
- Bluetooth: 1M bit/sec
- ZigBee: 250K bit/sec
- Network range:
- Bluetooth: 1 or 100 meters, depending on radio class
- ZigBee: Up to 70 meters
- Typical network join time
- Bluetooth: 3 seconds
- ZigBee: 30 milliseconds
Article: Bluetooth and ZigBee: Their similarities and differences
||Bluetooth 2.1 (EDR)
||Bluetooth Low Energy
||WiFi 802.11 b/g
||ISO 13157 etc.
||Point to Point
Beacon Nodes are usually positioned at the ceiling or on walls.
A mobile node is attached to the person or object to locate.
In order to locate the mobile node using the trilateration method the position of the beacons must be known in advance. The determination of the beacons position is usually done manually by measuring the distance to the two closest walls of the building using measuring tapes or ultrasonic/laser rangers. This method is cumbersome and error prone, therefore different techniques have been proposed to address the problem of obtaining automatically the position of the beacons, also known as the auto-calibration or auto-localization problem.
- Android support since 4.3
Remote Application Framework (similar to AirPlay)
OSM et al
- Bluetooth Smart Ready indicates a dual-mode device,typically a laptop or smartphone, whose hardware is compatible with both Classic and LE Bluetooth peripherals.
- Bluetooth Smart indicates an LE-only device, typically a battery-operated sensor, which requires either a SMART Ready or another SMART device in order to function.
Bluetooth low energy (BLE, Bluetooth LE)
Apple support for BLE in Bluetooth 4.0
In mid 2011, Apple joined the board of directors of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which also includes Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba and Lenovo.
Apple also added support for dual mode Bluetooth 4.0 in its mid-2011 MacBook Air and Mac mini, and subsequently added support to the iPhone 4S, making it the first Bluetooth 4.0 compliant smartphone.
Subsequent 2012 iOS devices, including the “New” iPad 3, iPhone 5 and the late 2012 iPad 4 and iPad mini also support Bluetooth 4.0. Apple also added Bluetooth 4.0 support to the mid-2012 MacBook Pros and the late-2012 iMac. Earlier Macs can add Bluetooth 4.0 support via a third party USB dongle.
Microsoft has not yet added general support for Bluetooth 4.0 and BLE in Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8. Microsoft has added custom support for BLE to the Surface Pro, but not its Surface RT. Nokia’s newest Lumia WP8 phones include BLE hardware, as do new Blackberry Z10 and Q10 models and recent higher-end models of HTC and Samsung smartphones.
According to WWDC 2013
You can buy this third party program, program them to emit whatever Bluetooth signal but also, your iOS devices can be beacons.
So your iPads, your iPhones with the new iOS 7 SDK, Public SDK, you can program them to emit whatever signal you want and you can do that dynamically and programmatically and vary depending on what’s happening.
So, imagine at the museum, the painting or the statue has a sign like an iPad is the sign, like a smart sign, like we have in our retail stores maybe, and you could tell the information about the painting but if it’s crowded, it’s still emitting Bluetooth LE in on your app, we can detect that and show them whatever UI.
iBeacons is a new feature of iOS7 that allows mobile devices to be accurately located inside buildings.
This opens up the possibility of creating a new generation of location-based learning content.
In practice, this means that when a user is near a “beacon” content can be “pushed” to their iPhone or iPad.
Because “beacons” are small, low cost and low power devices it is now possible to trigger “learning events” anywhere in your workplace.
Why did Apple go with iBeacon and not NFC
There are a few reasons why it makes sense for Apple to go with iBeacon and not NFC. The first is that range and affordability.
In a detailed piece Hari Gottipati, writing for GigaOm, has outline just how important this is: “The average area occupied by a Macy’s store is 175,000 square feet, which is 16,258 square meters. iBeacon’s range is 50 meters (typical Bluetooth range), or 2,500 square meters. So a typical Macy’s store would need 7 iBeacons. If Macy’s wanted to add NFC tags (each at 10 cents) to all its products to send information to phones, it would cost $1,000 for 10,000 products, $10,000 for 100,000 products and $100,000 for 1 million products. NFC may not be needed on all products, but this will give a rough idea on how much it could cost.”
AirDrop does the file transfer
There’s also the fact that Apple doesn’t really need, or perhaps, want NFC. It has AirPlay and Airdrop to handle the transfer of files, music and video clips. And NFC comes pre-loading with assumptions that Apple may not be able to fulfill, such as mobile payments. iBeacon is a new technology that offers a blank slate for Apple to make of it what it will in association with shopkeepers.
And NFC is used by Google. And Google vs Apple is still very much a thing to consider. This is also the downside of iBeacons compared to NFC. Because it only works with Apple devices, shopkeepers have to pay to target iPhones and not Android phones. We’re pretty sure shopkeepers want a marketing system with universal support; a payment system without universal support is simply out of the question.
The Promise Of QR Codes Just Without The QR Code
The premise for the modern, non industrial QR Code is to form a link between the real world and the Internet world. The QR code is actually far more popular then most come to understand. It even forms the basis of the most successful mobile wallet in the US, the Starbucks App.
The reason Starbucks has had this success with QR codes is because they use the technology in reverse. That being they control the imager and the customer displays the QR code on their device. This is in stark contrast to the way most startups and legacy companies have used this technology. That being the consumer controls the imager, a built-in camera and the QR code is usually a static printed image. The user’s phone must have many things in place for this to be a successful interaction. And iOS devices require a separate general purpose app to decode the QR code and hopefully act on the requirements and purpose of the QR code correctly.
- Virtual iBeacon. Use Virtual Box to turn your computer into a fully functional iBeacon device.
- Region monitor
- Ranging and micro-locations
- Awake your app by push notifications
- In app notification when user the customized region
- Third-party Bluetooth LE (Low Energy) or iOS device can be iBeacons
- One beacon ID can cover multiple locations
- Accuracy and range awareness
- Proximity marketing. Large scale retail outlets can invest in Beacon devices with their app store offering. SuperDry, for example, could place Beacon Devices around its store and shoppers could use the SuperDry app to gain information as they shop.
- Micro Location-based notification. A store can transmit information direct to an iPhone device as the user walks around. Whether this requires a compatible app to be installed, or can work with Notification Centre remains to be seen. But essentially a Beacon can transmit customized coupons to a customer as they walk around a store.
- Customised marketing. Essentially iBeacon can transmit customized coupons (designed specifically for you) when you enter a certain region. Perhaps if you’ve been to look at an item a number of times it could offer a discount to convince you.
- Specific directions. Because Beacons provide micro location support they can be used to direct customers to specific items. This could actually be tremendously useful in large department stores, where iBeacon technology could provide the ability to search for an item using a store app, and find directions to that item in the store.
- Indoor mapping. Because Beacons can provide micro location information indoors they can be used to dramatically improve indoor mapping. For US department stores and malls this is a much larger issue than we imagine here in the UK, accurate indoor mapping is very much on the agenda.
- Contactless payment. This is the big one. Beacons and iBeacon enable contactless payment systems to be developed. Although it’s worth noting that there isn’t this system set-up already, and as far as we know there isn’t one planned. Even so, iBeacons ability to track a specific phone, linked to an Apple ID and user account opens the door for an Apple-based payment system. This in itself opens up a whole raft of questions: would Apple want its traditional 30 per cent (way too high compared to Visa or MasterCard); how secure would it be; what kind of service would Apple offer. And would shopkeepers be interested? These are the kind of questions that are wholly speculative in nature. What’s important is that we can see here Apple laying the groundwork.
- Give apps & services more context - Beacons could be used to give our apps and services more context, so they can adapt to our surroundings. Imagine, for example, that you manage both a personal and a work Twitter account. You could set up a beacon at work that would automatically log you into your work Twitter account when you’re nearby. As soon as you’re out of range, you’re automatically switched into your personal account.
- Home automation - BLE is ideal for home automation, especially because most of us now carry our phones around with us most of the time. Because BLE knows how far you are away from beacons, triggers can be set to only go off when you’re a certain distance away. This is ideal for things like lighting and electronics. BLE can also be used to trigger warnings when you try to do things like leave the house while your oven is on.
- Never lose anything again (apart from your phone) - Beacons don’t have to be attached to static objects. You can add beacons to your keys, bags, laptops, tablets, or anything else you wouldn’t want to lose. They do cost a reasonable amount (about $20 for this type of tag), but could end up saving you more. You could get a warning when your tagged item is more than a certain distance from you, then get directions to where it is. This is ideal for when your keys are somewhere in the house, but nowhere to be seen.
- Extra security for your car - You could add a beacon to your car to stop it from starting unless it’s you who’s driving. For a less extreme approach, you could set your beacon up so that anytime the car is driven and you’re not near it, you get notified. That way, you can still drive it when you forget your phone, but you know if someone else is driving it while you’re not around.
- Smarter notifications - Push notifications are nearly as annoying as emails. Beacons could solve that issue by making them smarter. You could set up a “notification free zone” or areas where you only receive certain types of messages.
- iBeacons: Apple TV mit iOS 7 einrichten
- Sensor Tag by Texas Instruments
- Hardware device that is both transmitter and receiver of data
- Comes with BLE chip, transmitter, battery and sensors of your choice (Temperature, humidity, pressure, accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, etc)
- Batterytime up to one year
- Supersmall technology
- Triggs smartphones and mobile devices to communicate with it, when in range
- Cheap, getting cheaper
- Time to market or at least – RND.
- FOBO tag
- iBitz PowerKey and Unity activity trackers by GeoPalz are physical activity based wireless devices that connect to apps that unlock games and track fitness data.
- Oakley Airwave
Wireless key locators
Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth LE)
Apple’s forthcoming AirDrop in its iOS 7 mobile operating system will employ Wi-Fi Direct to be able to share files between two devices anywhere. Google’s Android operating system has had Wi-Fi Direct support since version 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich and has enabled various functions that users may be familiar with from Samsung Galaxy smartphone commercials (such as sharing pictures with your friends or the gimmicky All Share feature).
- Apple, AirDrop
- AirDrop from Activity Sheet (iOS 7) - Apps will be able to incorporate AirDrop support, giving users the ability to share photos, documents and more with friends from within an app.
- Chromecast by Google, Standard Wi-Fi
- Miracast, Mirrorlink
- Samsung, S Beam & All Share
Z-Wave is a wireless communications protocol designed for home automation, specifically to remotely control applications in residential and light commercial environments. The technology uses a low-power RF radio embedded or retrofitted into home electronics devices and systems, such as lighting, residential access control, entertainment systems and household appliances.
Z-Wave requires a master controller and a Z-Wave device. The most useful type of master controller is a USB stick, as it will allow you to control your devices using your smart phone or computer.
A Z-Wave device can be a light switch, a light dimmer, an outlet – for controlling things like TV’s, DVD’s and plugin-lamps – a motion sensor, a thermostat, or even a deadbolt lock.
- Install Firmware Driver for Z-Stick
- Home Automation (UK) - Z-Wave Aeon Labs Z Stick Series 2 - Unboxing and set-up
- How to set-up the Fibaro Door Sensor with Indigo on your Mac
- Pair. Hardware Manual for the Z-Stick, Pairing Manual
- Google Voice SMS Plugin
- Attention I could not manage to find out my (German) SMS number. Though the plugin needs a 10-digit number (more digits are not allowed). Therefore I expect it to be US only?
- Indigo for Plex. Control your system through Plex.
- SQL Logger Plugin
- Airfoil - official website
- Aircontrol plugin
- Github. Use Indigo to control your jailbroken AppleTV with FireCore’s AirControl extension in AppleTVFlash.
- ATV flash
- ATV Aircontrol
- DACP as used by Apple is encrypted now with RSA keys and unlikely to be cracked in the near future.
- iTunes can handle unencrypted requests (legacy I guess) though I couldn’t get the functionality to work well in this way
- Firecore have recently (02 May 2012) released Air Control (Beta) that offers complete network control to Apple TV’s
- Apple TV’s have to be jail broken - which currently means ATV2’s only (which explains why they cost more on eBay than a a new one from Apple).
- You have to install Firecore’s aTV Flash ($29.95). (and then Air Control (Beta)) which is a pretty good functional addition.
- Then Perry the Cynic’s wonderful plugin Cynical Network and use it to control the devices.
- Air Control can retrieve a raft of information about what’s playing.
- iCal Alarm Processor
- Pushover Plugin
- Backing up or Uninstalling Your Indigo Configuration
- Indigo Survey Plugin
- Timers and Pesters
- openURL Schemes
- openURL schemes are used to link to/open an app on your device, and you can use them on your Indigo control pages by selecting “Link To External URL” and typing in the openURL for the app you want.
- Indigo forums
- Database on openURL schemes
- Caller ID
- iPhone Portrait Retina, 640x832
- iPhone Landscape Retina, 960x536
- iPad Portrait Retina, 1408x1760
- iPad Landscape Retina, 2048x1408
- GE 45601 Z-Wave® LED Handheld Remote
- GE 45600 Z-Wave Basic Handheld Remote
- Fibaro Wall Plug 2500 Watt
- Fibaro Dimmer
- Fibaro Door Window Sensor
- Philio - Z-Wave 4 in 1 Sensor (Tür, Bewegung, Helligkeit, Temperatur)
- Fibaro Flood Sensor
- Everspring: Control Sensors
- Everspring: Smart Lightning
- Home Automation
- Security System
- NortQ e.g. power consumption
- Homemanager.tv. NorthQ has developed a portal where users can observe their consumption status and manager their budget. By creating a free account on the portal you can also set and receive alarms, control devices and take advantage of all the features and services that NorthQ products can offer.
- Aeotec e.g. door/window sensor, garage controller, home energy meter, key fob, led bulb, remote, multisensor, panic button, range extender, siren & doorbell, smart strip, smart switches, touch panels, water sensor, z-stick
INSTEON is a protocol developed by SmartLabs, parent company of Smarthome.com, which is widely used in North America and is moving into other markets as well. There are a few 3rd party vendors that make INSTEON hardware but most devices are made by SmartLabs. INSTEON is a combination RF and power line-based protocol. It is also said to support communicating over USB and Ethernet connections, and it can be intermixed with X10 devices for backward compability.
X10 is a legacy technology that works primarily over the power line though some devices are wireless (using the X10 RF protocol). X10 can not be recommended anyone that starts a new home automation system because of it’s poor reliability.
DECT Ultra Low Energy
UPB (Universal Powerline Bus)
- UPB transmits over the power line as X10 does, but with a much stronger and faster signal. It also supports having more devices, and it will retransmit commands if the recpipient does not aknowlege them
- Belkin WeMo
- A dry-contact switch is a common type of switch; it works by opening or closing a circuit.
- Withings Scale
||Needs Neutral Wire?
||no (uses category-5 UTP)
Definition of Things
- Thing Class #1: Single-purpose device with limited state, CPU, and connectivity capabilities. Not directly addressable (requires a “hub” or the like to communicate with the outside world). No UI.
Examples: Z-Wave switch or 1-Wire sensor or a Philips Hue lightbulb.
- Thing Class #2: Single-purpose device with TCP/IP connectivity (including DHCP support), with support via some protocol for control API (ideally, REST) and “content” as necessary. May have UI.
Example: a smart thermostat (such as a Nest).
- Thing Class #2A: A subclass of #2, consisting of “hub”-type device whose main function is to orchestrate, and provide access to, a network of Class #1 devices. Example: a 1-Wire hub or a proprietary sensor hub or a Philips Hue controller). The hub will likely support a protocol for discovering / browsing / adding / removing / initializing the devices it manages.
- Thing Class #3: I think the main distinguishing factor here is that devices in these classes are capable of accepting and executing general-purpose code (“apps”) on a dynamic basis… in other words, these are small “computers” in the classic sense, and, as such, can be deployed to function as instances of other classes of devices (such as a Class #2A “hub” or as a Class #2 thermostat). Examples: An Arduino or Beagle board, or even a 5 year old used PC that you bought for $25 at a used computer store and installed Ubuntu on and are using for your home automation project.
- Thing Class #4: I feel like it’s important to identify the class of things that includes “Connected TVs”, smart A/V receivers, or Sonos music players. These are high-function devices that would seem to be just Class 2 things. Yet, more and more, these kinds of things include a set of apps (for, say, viewing Amazon or Netflix content, or even browsing the web), they would seem to be Class #3 things. But somehow they don’t feel that way… they seem to be single-purpose (show video content or play audio content) and are sandboxed (restricted) with regard to which apps can be installed on them.